Purpose of this Website

The Big Picture







Finding Ecosystem Valuation 
on the World Wide Web

American Agricultural Economics Association

Keywords:  General Info      Professional Association Links

  • Homepage for AAEA, whose mission is to enhance the skills, knowledge, and professional contributions of those economists who help society to solve problems related to agriculture, food, resources, and economic development. 
  • The site has links to many sources of information related to agricultural and natural resource economics.

Association of Environmental and Resource Economists

Keywords: General Info     Professional Association Links

  • Homepage for AERE, an organization with members from academic institutions, the public sector, and private industry. It draws from traditional economics, agricultural economics, forestry, and natural resource schools. 
  • The site has links to discussion groups, journals, and many other sources of information related to environmental and natural resource economics.

Ecological Economics Discussion Group Archives

Keywords: General Info   List Server 

  • Searchable archives of the ecological economics discussion group. 

The Land and Resource Economics Network

Keywords: General Info   List Server 

  • RESECON is an on-line community of academics, professionals, and others with an interest in the economics of land and other natural resources. It is primarily an association serving the academic and professional economics community. 
  • The site points to numerous on-line resources covering many aspects of the disciplines of land and natural resource economics. 
  • The RESECON File Archives contain working papers, public documents, and items of interest authored, or nominated by the membership. 
  • Available through this site is the RESECON Classics in Natural Resource Economics Series.

Archives of the Environmental Economics E-Mail List Server

Keywords:  General Info  List Server

  • Earthsystems.org hosts and archives electronic mailing lists to enhance communications among members of organizations or for the discussion of a wide array of environmental topics
  • Archives cover sustainable economics, economic growth, free trade and the environment, and the role of multilateral economic institutions in the development process
  • Also pay attention to implementing an ecological approach to economics in university curriculum

Environmental Economics Distance Learning Course

Keywords:  General Info 

  • Online course notes for Environmental Economics Distance Learning Course 
  • Taught by Brent Sohngen, Ohio State University
  • Course is designed for individuals who have an interest in understanding how economics applies to natural resources and the environment.
  • Course focuses on economic principles and concepts related to environmental and natural resources
  • Goals of the course are (1) to gain insight into the relationship between the environment and the economy; (2) to be exposed to economic thinking over a variety of environmental issues; (3) to understand the tools and techniques used by economists; and (4) to learn about economic policy of environmental issues

Resources for the Future (RFF)

Keywords:  General Info     Multiple Reports     Abstract     Full Report

  • Home page for Resources for the Future, a nonprofit organization that conducts research on environmental and natural resource issues
  • Four major research areas are:  Environment, Natural Resources, Intersections (e.g. electricity, transportation, etc.), and Methods, Tools and Techniques
  • Project summaries, articles, and discussion papers in each research area can be downloaded or read online

EPA Economy and Environment

Keywords:  General Info     Multiple Reports     Full Report      Abstract     Links

  • Home page for the Economy and Environment Program within the EPA?s Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation
  • Research and analysis related to environmental economics, especially pollution 
  • Access to two databases of interest which can be searched individually or simultaneously 
  • Over 135 documents related to ?ecosystem and valuation? can be downloaded or read online
  • Report Inventory is a database of environmental economics reports of studies done by and for the program; database can be searched by title or subject
  • NSF/EPA Funding for Environmental Economics database includes listings of all projects funded by the NSF/EPA Decision Making and Valuation for Environmental Policy program since 1995 and by the EPA Office of Research and Development since 1991; database can be searched by title, subject, or principle 
  • Site also contains an online primer organized by analysis methodology with links to the two databases


National Center for Environmental Research and Quality Assurance (NCERQA)

Keywords:  Multiple Reports     Abstract

  • Home page for the (NCERQA) within the EPA?s office of Research and Development
  • Contains descriptions of ongoing research funded by the center

World Bank Environmental Economics and Indicators (EEI) ? Environmental Valuation

Keywords:  General Info     Case Studies

  • Web page for environmental valuation within the World Bank
  • General overview of economic valuation of environmental impacts is presented in both ?Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update? and ?Economic Analysis of Investment Projects?, both available online
  • Case studies exist that illustrate the use of different valuation techniques including ?The Benefits and Costs of Establishing a National Park in Madagascar? at http://www-esd.worldbank.org/eei/publ/Madagascar.html.

USDA Economic Research Service

Keywords: General Info.     Multiple Reports     Data      Links

  • Homepage for USDA Economic Research Service.
  • The Economic Research Service provides economic analysis on efficiency, efficacy, and equity issues related to agriculture, food, the environment, and rural development to improve public and private decisionmaking.
  • Research reports and data are available on the site.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Institute for Water Resources

Keywords: Multiple Reports     Links

  • Institute for Water Resources home page
  • Links to online reports on water resource projects
  • Complete list of published reports

Monetary Measurement of Environmental Goods and Services

Keywords: Full Report     General Info     Travel Cost     Hedonic Pricing     Contingent Valuation     Benefits Transfer

  • Description of techniques for measuring monetary values of non-marketed environmental goods and services
  • Discussion of strengths and limitations as well as resource requirements
  • Methods include factor income, travel cost, hedonic pricing, contingent valuation, and benefits transfer

National Environmental Data Index (NEDI)

Keywords:  Multiple Reports

  • Homepage of National Environmental Data Index
  • Provides searching capabilities through several federal government databases for all types of environmental data at  http://nedi1.nedi.gov/nedi-bin/nedisearchpage
  • A search on ?ecosystem and valuation? resulted in more than 100 documents listed

ENVALUE: A Searchable Environmental Valuation Database

Keywords:  Multiple Reports     Summary Info     Travel Cost     Contingent Valuation     Benefits Transfer

  • Developed by the NSW EPA and first released in 1995
  • Systematic collection of environmental valuation studies presented in an on-line database
  • Database provides guidance on transferring estimates to other sites
  • Values estimated by the original studies have been converted into A$ 1997 values and can be shown in other currencies as an option
  • Summaries and results reported in the database were subject to a process of peer review 
  • More than 125 studies of ?Natural Areas? are summarized

Environmental Valuation Reference Inventory (EVRI)

Keywords:  Multiple Reports     Benefits Transfer

  • Searchable storehouse of over 800 empirical studies on the economic value of environmental benefits
  • Developed as a tool to help policy analysts use the benefits transfer approach
  • Information in the EVRI is available to subscribers only
  • Those who want to become more familiar with the EVRI initiative and its functionality may ?Tour EVRI?

The Beijer Institute Discussion Papers

Keywords:  General Info     Multiple Reports     Full Report

  • Lists 118 discussion papers on environmental and resource economics and management from 1991-1998
  • Full reports for documents from 1998 available in pdf format

NetEc [http://netec.wustl.edu/NetEc.html]

Keywords:  Multiple Reports
· The homepage for NetEc, an international academic effort to improve the communication of Economics via electronic media. 
· The site contains a large searchable database of economic papers, some of which may be downloaded. 

Readings in the Field of Natural Resource & Environmental Economics

Keywords: General Info Bibliography

  • This document combines an outline of the field of natural resource and environmental economics with a bibliography of 945 references. 

National Library for the Environment Congressional Research Service Reports

Keywords: Multiple Reports

  • The Congressional Research Service (CRS), part of the Library of Congress, prepares its reports for the U.S. Congress. CRS products undergo review for accuracy and objectivity and contain nontechnical information that can be very useful to people interested in environmental policy. 
  • CNIE is obtaining copies of the CRS reports, converting them to an Internet-compatible format and placing them online. As new or updated CRS reports related to environmental or resource issues become available, CNIE will add them to this library.

Agriculture Network Information Center 

Keywords: Agriculture  Multiple Reports

  • AgNIC (Agriculture Network Information Center) is a distributed network that provides access to agriculture-related information, subject area experts, and other resources. 
  • It was established by an alliance of the National Agricultural Library, land-grant universities, and other organizations committed to facilitating public access to agricultural and related information. 
  • The site includes several databases and sources of reference information.

NOAA/National Sea Grant Internet Resource for Coastal Environmental Economics

Keywords: Marine Resources General Info Multiple Reports Links

  • This site provides a number of links to studies and other resources related to the economic values provided by coastal environmental resources in four geographic areas: the Chesapeake Bay, the Great Lakes, New England, and South Florida. 
  • The site also contains a document describing ecosystem valuation concepts and methods.

Committee on the Human Dimensions of Recreational Fisheries http://lutra.tamu.edu/hdrfish.htm

Keywords: Fisheries  Multiple Reports

  • Formed under the auspices of the Fisheries Management Section of the American Fisheries Society, the Committee has the following goals: 
  • Emphasize applied and methodological aspects of recreational fishing studies; focus on important issues such as urban fishing programs, demographic implications, recreational fishing/ tourism interactions, catch and release trends, and resource allocation among others; 
  • Develop human dimensions materials and programs that meet the needs of fisheries managers; 
  • Provide opportunities for managers and social science researchers to dialogue on recreational fishing topics; 
  • Focus on freshwater and marine recreational fisheries. 

Centre for the Economics and Management of Aquatic Resources

Keywords: Marine Resources Fisheries

  • The Centre for the Economics and Management of Aquatic Resources (CEMARE) is a specialised research centre within the Department of Economics at the University of Portsmouth. 
  • Emphasis on the economic analysis of fisheries. 
  • The areas of expertise have expanded to include aquaculture economics and management, recreational fisheries, freshwater fisheries and coastal zone management. 

Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA)

Keywords:  Multiple Reports     Full Report     Abstract     Links

  • Homepage for EEPSEA, which provides training and research in environmental and resource economics within International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC)
  • Publications include: Research Reports, Special Papers, and Policy Briefs many of which are related to valuation of environmental resources
  • Some reports available online; others can be ordered
  • Several links to other environmental economics websites

Decision Making and Valuation for Environmental Policy

Keywords:  Proceedings    Multiple Reports     Abstract

  • Contains the Proceedings from the 1998 Decision-Making and Valuation for Environmental Policy Workshop
  • Describes objectives and preliminary findings of research funded through the NSF/EPA Partnership of Environmental Research
  • Research occurs in one of four areas:  costs of environmental programs, ecosystem valuation, benefits of environmental programs and policies, and decision-making for environmental policy

Valuing and Managing Ecosystems

Keywords:  Workshop     Multiple Reports     Abstract

  • Description of the ?Valuing and Managing Ecosystems: Economic Research Sponsored by NSF/EPA? workshop
  • Includes abstracts of several research projects focused on the valuation of ecosystem attributes

Valuation and Environmental Policy

Keywords:  Multiple Reports     Abstract

  • Lists 1995 NCERQA ?Valuation and Environmental Policy? grant project abstracts 

Economic Valuation of Environmental Benefits and the Targeting of Conservation Programs: The Case of the CRP

Keywords:  Agricultural Economics      Valuation        Environmental Policy

  • This report demonstrates how nonmarket valuation models can be used in targeting conservation programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). 
  • As the largest program designed to mitigate the negative environmental effects of agriculture, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has broadened its initial focus on reductions in soil erosion to consider other landscape factors that may also be beneficial. For example, preserving habitats can help protect wildlife, thus leading to more nature-viewing opportunities. 

Innovation in the Valuation of Ecosystems:  A Forest Application

Keywords:  Abstract     Contingent Valuation     Forest     Theory

  • Description and progress report for NCERQA project ?Innovation in the Valuation of Ecosystems:  A Forest Application? 
  • Looks at willingness to pay to maintain ecosystems in particular conditions
  • Research uses the multi-attribute utility (MAU) method to describe alternative forest states
  • Case study takes place in the southern Appalachians.


 Developing Conjoint Stated Preference Methods for Valuation of Environmental Resources http://es.epa.gov/ncerqa_abstracts/grants/95/valuation/valopalu.html

Keywords:  Abstract     Conjoint Analysis     Theory

  • Description and progress report for NCERQA project ?Developing Conjoint Stated Preference Methods for Valuation of Environmental Resources within their Ecological Context? 
  • Develops methods for valuing environmental resources within a complex context

Ecosystem Valuation: Policy Applications for the Patuxent Watershed Ecological-Economics Model

Keywords:  Abstract     Hedonic Pricing     Benefit-Cost Analysis     Land Use     Spatial Data     Model

  • Description and progress report for NCERQA project ?Ecosystem Valuation: Policy Applications for the Patuxent Watershed Ecological-Economics Model? 
  • Develops and analyzes a number of proposed government policies 
  • Measures projects? economic and ecological costs and benefits through the use of spatial data
  • Policies to be analyzed include zoning, other land use regulations, and forest buffer zones

Updating Prior Methods for Non-Market Valuation 

Keywords:  Abstract     Travel Cost     Contingent Valuation     Benefits Transfer     Wetlands

  • Description and progress report for NCERQA project ?Updating Prior Methods for Non-Market Valuation:  A Bayesian Approach to Combining Disparate Sources of Environmental Values?
  • Provides a systematic approach to integrating and interpreting data from disparate sources
  • Estimates the value of wetland restoration in Iowa

 Monetary Measurement of Environmental Goods and Services

Keywords: Full Report     General Info     Travel Cost     Hedonic Pricing     Contingent Valuation     Benefits Transfer

  • Description of techniques for measuring monetary values of non-marketed environmental goods and services
  • Discussion of strengths and limitations as well as resource requirements
  • Methods include factor income, travel cost, hedonic pricing, contingent valuation, and benefits transfer

Valuing Urban Wetlands: A Property Pricing Approach

Keywords: Full Report     Hedonic Pricing 

  • Estimates value of wetland amenities in Portland, Oregon
  • Uses hedonic property price function to relate sales price to nearby wetland characteristics
  • Uses second-stage regression analysis to estimate WTP for wetland size

The Demand For Fishing Licenses and the Benefits of Recreational Fishing

Keywords:  Abstract     Household Production Framework     Fishing

  • Project seeks to develop and apply a new method for estimating the economic benefits of an environmental amenity
  • Demand for state fishing licenses is used to infer the benefits of recreational fishing
  • Study covers continental United States over a fifteen-year period
  • Preliminary estimates are compared with results from previous studies using contingent valuation and travel cost approaches

Investments in Biodiversity Prospecting and Incentives for Conservation

Keywords:  Full Report     Biodiversity     Conservation     Policy

  • · Paper argues that investments in biological diversity prospecting are unlikely to increase incentives for conservation

Valuation of Biodiversity for Use in New Product Research in a Model of Sequential Search

Keywords: Full Report     Biodiversity     Model

  • Paper develops a model of search in which a researcher chooses the size of sequential batches of samples to test
  • Search model places a value on the marginal research opportunity
  • Results show that in the specific applications tested, the value of biological diversity is negligible

Wetland Creation in the Kävlinge River Catchment, Scania, South Sweden 

Keywords:  Wetlands     Full Report     Survey

  • Pilot study on implementation, perceived benefits, and knowledge of ecosystem services 

Empirical Cost Equations for Wetland Creation

Keywords:  Wetlands     Full Report     Case Study

  • Case of wetlands as nitrogen sinks in Scania, South Sweden
  • Determinants of wetland creation costs

Values of the Hadejia-Nguru  Wetlands
  • Home page for Dr. Julian Thompson, Dept. of Geography, University College of London (Select Current Projects)
  • Values for agriculture, fisheries, food and fiber, water supplies, and grazing resources in Africa
  • Photo essay

The Economic Valuation of Mangroves: A Manual for Researchers

Keywords:  Full Report     Case Study     Mangroves

  • Evaluation of mangrove ecosystems
  • Compiled and developed from a number of sources as an aid to researchers in Southeast Asia 
  • Provides an introduction to the values of, and threats to, mangrove ecosystems
  • Provides a theoretical introduction to valuation of the environment
  • Presents a methodology for the economic assessment of mangrove management options
  • Discusses the possible impacts associated with common development options for mangrove ecosystems
  • Includes two case-study examples from Asia

The Economic Valuation of Tropical Forest Land Use Options: A Manual for Researchers 

Keywords:  Full Report     Tropical Forest     Cost-Benefit Analysis     Case Study

  • Provides a basic theoretical background to environmental valuation
  • Develops a methodology for comparing alternative uses of forest land using cost benefit analysis
  • Theoretical issues such as discounting, risk and uncertainty, and distributional equity are discussed
  • Presents a range of valuation techniques available for estimating environmental goods and services
  • The theory and methodology of a number of first best valuation techniques is discussed
  • Alternative rapid and less rigorous approaches are also highlighted
  • Discusses the valuation methodologies that might be applied to value each individual component of a tropical forest
  • Presents results from previous studies

Evaluating Bintuni Bay: Some Practical Lessons in Applied Resource Valuation

Keywords:  Full Report     Cost-Benefit Analysis     Indonesia     Case Study

  • Commences with a brief review of the Bintuni Bay (Indonesia) area 
  • Discusses the key methodological issues associated with selecting and implementing a research strategy including valuation technique, data availability, and study objective 
  • Outlines some myths about the three major logistical challenges in any such research program: local empowerment, money management, and health and safety
  • Provides some specific examples from the various phases to show how methodological and research issues were addressed in the study
  • Includes a retrospective look at the overall study, highlighting those aspects that would be relevant to other researchers

Assessing Environmental Values: The Damage Schedule Approach

Keywords:  Abstract     Contingent Valuation     Benefits Transfer     Asia

  • Uses a contingent choice survey approach to investigate whether the value judgments of local stakeholders could be used to gauge the significance of potential environmental damage in two coastal areas in Thailand
  • Looks at the applicability of a 'damage schedule' approach as an alternative to benefits transfer 
  • Concludes that such this method offers a practical and effective tool for those involved in ecosystem management

Sewage or Swimming? The Recreational Value of East Lake, Wuhan, China

Keywords:  Abstract     Contingent Valuation     Travel Cost     Asia

  • Estimates benefits for swimming, fishing and boating one of China's most famous lakes
  • Looks at how demand for water-based recreation at East Lake, Wuhan, would change if the level of pollution in the lake's waters improved
  • Found that cleaning the lake could raise its recreation value by up to 50%
  • Suggested that the cost of clean-up might be re-couped by charging appropriate visitor fees

Thailand's National Parks: Making Conservation Pay

Keywords:  Abstract     Contingent Valuation     Asia

  • Estimated through a survey instrument what value visitors gave to the country's national parks
  • Concentrated on three public recreational areas in two national parks in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand
  • Asked people to rank four hypothetical trips in the three areas, according to their preference for various recreational attributes
  • Rankings used to calculate an appropriate entrance fee for each area

Economic Analysis of Indonesian Coral Reefs

Keywords:  Abstract     Full Report     Indonesia 

  • Paper discusses the most important functions of coral reefs and estimates the value of some of these functions
  • Five major threats (poison fishing, blast fishing, sedimentation/pollution, coral mining, and overfishing) are analyzed 
  • Paper discusses the management options for each of the threats
  • Includes a short annotated bibliography 

Non-Market Economic User Values of the Florida Keys/Key West

Keywords:  Abstract     Summary Info     Travel Cost     Recreation

  • Six-page summary of key findings from the report entitled "Non-Market Economic User Values of the Florida Keys/Key West"
  • Results of estimated travel cost demand models are presented
  • Annual user values are provided with estimates broken down by activities
  • Asset value of the resources for visitor recreational uses is presented
  • General uses of non-market economic values are presented along with an example putting the cost of water quality improvement and protection into perspective

The Economic Value of Wetlands: Wetlands' Role in Flood Protection in Western Washington

Keywords:  Full Report     Wetlands     Washington

  • Describes the general economic rationale for pricing non-marketed natural resource services like flood protection and outlines the methods economists use to establish non-market values
  • Shows how the "alternative/substitute cost" method can be used to produce a proxy for the value of the flood protection services
  • Estimates the dollar-per-acre values of wetlands systems for flood protection in two Western Washington communities
  • A simple "ratio analysis" scheme is employed, making the method easily transferable to other communities
  • Analysis suggests that communities are likely to pay an increasingly high price for flood protection if they allow their remaining natural systems capable of attenuating flood flows to become further compromised

Economic Valuation of Wetlands

Keywords:  General Info     Wetlands     Case Studies

  • Guide for policy makers and planners on the potential uses for economic valuation of wetlands and how such valuation studies should be conducted
  • Groups the features of wetlands systems into components, functions, and attributes
  • Explains the role of valuation in decision making
  • Develops an appraisal framework for assessing the next economic benefits of various wetland use options
  • Gives six examples of how policy makers undertake wetland valuation studies
  • Provides guidance on planning and conducting a study
  • Guide is available in PDF format in three languages: English, French, and Spanish